Robert Mondavi is best remembered for transforming California winemaking into an internationally competitive industry. Born to Italian immigrants, Mondavi had little formal training in winemaking but learned the trade after college when he went to work for a winery that was partly owned by his father. When his family acquired a neighboring winery, he co-managed it with his brother for several decades. The brothers’ relationship was contentious, and Robert finally left the winery to start his own business when he was 52. He traveled to France to learn the techniques of the most internationally recognized wineries, and he returned with a new vision for California wine. He replaced his equipment with stainless steel fermentation tanks and French oak barrels, and he began using cold fermentation to preserve the fruity flavor of his grapes. But he didn’t keep these innovations a secret from his competitors -- he encouraged other California winemakers to follow suit. André Tchelistcheff, the winemaker at Beaulieu Vineyards, remembers that Robert “wanted everyone to make it. He wanted all California wines to be world class.”
Mondavi’s hard work paid off. In 1976, several California wineries were invited to participate in a blind tasting in Paris, now famously referred to as “The Judgment of Paris.” Wine lovers around the world were shocked when California wines won in both the red and white wine categories. Although Mondavi’s wine was not entered in the competition, the winners were his former employees and other vintners whom he had mentored. Mondavi claimed he was “tickled to death” by the victory, which cemented Napa Valley’s entry into the top-tier wine market.
Mondavi’s business grew to a $500-million-a-year enterprise as he continued to promote California wines all over the world. He is credited for demystifying wine for the American public, and American consumption of wine grew steadily over the latter part of the twentieth century. When he died in 2008, Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger issued a statement that said, “It is hard to imagine anyone having more of a lasting impact on California’s $20 billion-a-year wine industry than Robert Mondavi.” He called Mondavi “a tireless entrepreneur who transformed how the world felt about California wine, and an unforgettable personality to everyone who knew him.”
From a systems of exchange perspective, Mondavi’s career provides an interesting example of a transition between different types of economic systems. During the beginning of his career, his business strategy reflected the logics of the price system of exchange. In the price system, economic actors are autonomous agents in a competitive market; each actor pursues strategies to maximize his or her self-interest (i.e. profits or efficiency). The price system of exchange is dominant in the American economy, so Mondavi was adhering to market norms when he initially ran his winery as an independent, competitive operation. However, his strategy shifted after his vacation to France in 1962. Not only did he learn new winemaking techniques, but he also noticed the strong regional identity among vintners in the most famous viticultural areas (e.g. Champagne, Burgundy, and Bordeaux). Mondavi realized that if he was to succeed on the international stage, he needed to elevate Napa Valley to the same level of recognition as Champagne or Bordeaux.
Armed with his new knowledge and vision for Napa Valley wine, he helped vintners across the region improve the quality of their products. This new collaborative business strategy involved elements of both the associative and communal systems of exchange. His recognition that international recognition for the entire region would be mutually beneficial for all the local vintners demonstrates the associative logic of instrumental rationality, i.e. pursuing a partnership because it improves everyone’s bottom line. However, his tireless educational efforts also demonstrate the communal logic ofparticularistic orientation toward members of a shared social group; Mondavi encouraged California winemakers to develop a shared regional identity, and people who knew him believed that he genuinely wanted his friends and neighbors to succeed. By transitioning from a price logic to an associative and communal logic, Mondavi helped transform the California wine industry into one of the top wine regions worldwide.